Tag Archives: Civil War

Confederate Soldiers Martyrs Monument In Eminence Kentucky

In the cemetery, of the small town of Eminence, Kentucky, stands a monument to three Confederate soldiers.  These men were not killed during battle, but were murdered due to the orders of Brevet Major General Stephen Gano Burbridge – also known as the ‘Butcher of Kentucky’.

During the Civil War Stephen Burbridge was Kentucky’s most controversial military commander.  After serving as colonel during the early part of the war, in 1864 he returned to Kentucky where he fought against Confederate raiders, including John Hunt Morgan.  At that time he was placed in command in Kentucky, but his harsh tactics won him no friends and many enemies.  In July 1864 he issued Order No. 59 which included ‘Wherever an unarmed Union citizen is murdered, four guerrillas will be selected from the prisoners in the hands of the military authorities and publicly shot to death in the most convenient place near the scene of the outrage.’

The three CSA soldiers who were shot November 3, 1864, at Pleasureville by order of Gen. Burbridge in pretense of retaliation of two Negroes that were killed near Port Royal.  ‘Sleep on ye braves for you have got our sympathy to our latest breath.  We would not have thee buried on a lot with him who caused they death.’

On August 12, 1864, four guerrillas were taken from the city of Eminence to some point in the Henry County, and were shot.  On November 3, 1864, four more were sent from Lexington to Pleasureville (a small town in Henry County) to be executed.  Sixteen hours after the execution their bodies were still lying on the floor of the depot where they were shot.  A few hours later three of these men were buried in Eminence Cemetery – William Tighe, R. W. Yates and William Darbro – the fourth man, William Long, was buried in Maysville by his family.

The executions were carried out by Co. C. 54th Reg. Infantry, led by Captain Emzy W. Easley.  Captain Easley was to execute four more Confederates about January 15th for the killing of Preston Sparks, and three more on February 2.  ‘I was heartsick over the task assigned me, and would rather have gone into battle against any force than execute those men.  Just one hour before the time set, I received a telegram signed by Abraham Lincoln.  It ordered the execution of Waller deferred, and that he be sent back to Lexington until further orders.  When I saw the contents of the message at first glance I was so overjoyed that I thought it referred to all of the men.  I did not read it again, but sent back all three – the execution thus delayed never took place, and in a few months the war was over.’  Three lives were saved that day, although only one man was to be sent to Lexington.  Captain Easley didn’t read the telegram carefully and assumed all men were reprieved.

Burbridge also directed the imprisonment and execution of numerous people in the state, including public figures, charging them with treason and other high crimes, many of which were falsely charged

Brevet Maj. Gen Stephen Burbridge quickly lost support of Kentuckians due to his harsh measures and was replaced in February 1865, and at the end of the war he moved to New York.

The lives of four men and their families were forever changed that day in November 1864.  William Darbro had a wife, Mary Ann Bruce, and three babies – Permelia, Catherine and John, all under the age of four.  R. W. Yates was a resident of Hart County and William Tighe of Grant County.

This Confederate Soldiers Martyrs Monument was placed on the National Register of Historic Places July 17, 1997.

William Tighe, aged 30 years.  R. W. Yates, aged 30 years.  William Darbro, aged 20 years.  Eminence Cemetery, Henry County, Kentucky.

Death of John K. Wickliffe – Civil War Soldier From Muhlenberg County

John Kincheloe Wickliffe was the son of Moses Wickliffe and Nancy Young.  His siblings were Aaron, William Y., Susan Jane (who married William Y. Cundiff), Benjamin Singleton and Robert McLean (twins, who remained bachelors), Moses (also served in the Civil War), Agnes Elizabeth (who married John F. Davis), Charles Bryant, and Mary Frances.

John K. Wickliffe was listed as killed in the Maysville Weekly Bulletin, of July 7, 1864.  Listed were those men who were killed or wounded from the Ninth Kentucky Infantry, from May 9th to June 1st, 1864, Colonel J. W. Caldwell, commanding.

A History of Muhlenberg County by Otto A. Rothert, 1913

In this connection it may be well to refer to John K. Wickliffe, another of the Muhlenberg soldiers who lost his life fighting for the South.  John K. Wickliffe was a son of Colonel Moses Wickliffe, and one of the most popular men in the county.  He was born in 1834 near Bevier, enlisted in Company C, Ninth Kentucky Infantry, fought at Shiloh, Vicksburg, Baton Rouge, Hartsville, Stone River, Jackson, Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, and Rocky Face Gap, and was killed at Resaca, Georgia, May 14, 1864.  No soldier’s death was more keenly deplored in the county, by both Northern and Southern sympathizers, than John K. Wickliffe, who had won his way into the hearts of all with whom he had come in contact.  Lycurgus T. Reid, of Rockport, Ohio County, writing to me in July, 1912, relative to the death of this brave man, says:

‘Although I may have forgotten some of my war experiences, I remember the time John K. Wickliffe was killed.  I had my hand on his back when the fatal ball struck him.  This incident, in all its detail, is as clear in my mind today as it was the day he was shot.  I need but close my eyes to see the whole scene reenacted.  It will be impossible for me to picture to you all the details of the event.  However, I will attempt to give an outline of the facts.

‘We were at Resaca.  We had dug out shallow trenches and on top of the low embankment and the lower side of the log, through which to shoot at the Yankees should they attack us.  We had left our arms back of the breastworks while we were working on this embankment.  Suddenly the rally to arms was sounded and every mother’s son of us made for our guns.  I, being a small man, was posted on the left of Company C (the color company of the Ninth Regiment), near the flag and John K. Wickliffe, who was our second sergeant and left company guide.  Something, at times, makes me think he was color sergeant that day, but if he was he held on to his gun and accoutrements.  We fell into the slight works and began to arrange ourselves for a good, square fight.  The Yankees were in sight and coming fast.  Wickliffe lay down on his stomach and, finding his cartridge box under him, asked me to push it up on his back.  While I was attempting to do so a minie ball from the Yankee column struck the lower edge of the log, just above our heads, and glanced down, striking Wickliffe in the forehead, a little to the right of the center, passing through his head.  He suddenly rose to his feet and fell backward, outside of the works, a dead man.  He scarcely moved a muscle after he fell.  I fired a number of shots over his prostrate body at the approaching enemy.  During the course of the fight that followed I was obliged to change my position, but before doing so I took another look at my old friend and then covered his face with a blanket.  That was the last I saw of John K. Wickliffe.’

 

The Life of Lucy Neville Blakemore Bragg

I’ve never been as interested in the life of a woman before meeting Lucy Neville Blakemore Bragg – metaphorically speaking.  We met at her gravestone in Vanceburg, Lewis County, Kentucky, two years ago.  Lucy died 156 years ago – but what a life she lived.  And the most important dates and information are on her stone for all to know a part of her story.

Lucy was the daughter of Thomas Blakemore and Ann Gibbs Neville, born in Frederick County, Virginia, April 8, 1764.  She married Thomas Bragg – a captain during the Revolutionary War.  They eventually moved their family to Lewis County, Kentucky.  Thomas Bragg died October 14, 1820.  Lucy lived on for another 42 years.

Lucy began life as a British subject, the daughter of Thomas Blakemore and Ann Gibbs Neville, born April 8, 1764, giving allegiance to King George III, and being a loyal subject until the war.  Her father and at least one brother fought during the Revolution, as well as her future husband, Captain Thomas Bragg, whom she married September 20, 1781.

Thomas and Lucy Bragg were in Lewis County before 1810, when they appeared in the census of that year.  This is twenty-seven years after the war, Lucy was 46 years of age.  In 1819 Thomas Bragg petitioned the court to open a tavern at his home in Vanceburg, and after his death in 1820, Lucy continued to keep the tavern.

In the 1850 census Lucy is head of her household, aged 86 years.  With her lives her son-in-law, Alexander Bruce, who married her daughter Amanda (who is deceased by this time).  Also in the household are two grandsons, children of Alexander and Amanda – Thomas J., 28, a boatman, and his new wife, Mary, 20; and Henry C., 26, also a boatman, and his new wife, Mary, 20.  Vanceburg sits right on the river and I’m sure many in the town and county worked on the water.  In the 1860 census Lucy is 96, Mary Bragg, 18, living with her – probably a great-granddaughter.

And she was living life to the very end.  In February of 1862, nine months before her death, she changed her will in favor of her grandson, Henry C. Bruce, in stead of grandson Horatio W. Bruce.  At first I thought there must have been a tiff in the family, but read that Horatio W. Bruce moved to Louisville, and perhaps Lucy decided Henry, living in the county, would keep the land and slaves in the family.  Just a guess.

Going from a British subject to a citizen of the United States, Lucy Blakemore Bragg lived through sixteen presidents!  From our first president, George Washington, down the line to Abraham Lincoln.  What an amount of history this woman experienced!  She lived through four major wars – Revolutionary War, 1775-1783; War of 1812, 1812-1815; Mexican War, 1846-1848; and the first two years of the Civil War. 

Think of the amount of changes and events that came about in her lifetime – a new country that was given ‘certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness’ – Lewis and Clark explored the Louisiana Purchase – the steamboat was invented – the city of Washington was burned by British troops in 1814 – James Monroe proclaimed his doctrine of manifest destiny – the California gold rush – the slavery issue is debated – the country grew from the original 13 states to 34 – the South secedes from the Union and the Civil War begins.  And that’s just to name a few.

Lucy outlived her husband, Thomas Bragg, by 42 years.  She outlived all but two of her children and they died within three years – John in 1863 and Harriet in 1865. 

How I would love to sit and talk with this woman!  What interesting things she could tell us about the infant days of our country and the way it changed in the ensuing 80 years!

Lewis County, Kentucky Will Book F, Pages 270-271

In the name of God, amen.

I Lucy Bragg, of Lewis County, State of Kentucky, knowing the uncertainty of life, the certainty of death, being frail in body though sound in mind, do make the following disposition of a part of my property.  I give to my grandson, Henry C. Bruce, of Blackrock Bottom, my Negro woman Minerva, her three children, or more if she has more children, and all their increase.  Also I give to my said grandson Henry C. Bruce a piece of land adjoining the town of Vanceburg and bounded on the north by the town of Vanceburg, on the east

by the state road, on the south by the lands belonging to the heirs of my late husband at my death, and on the west by the land of W. C. Halbert; said parcel of land namely bequeathed to Henry C. Bruce is the same land heretofore claimed by my grandson H. W. Bruce, and I ever give and bequeath said land and slaves or other to said H. W. Bruce in any former will I may have made heretofore I hereby revoke said will as far as it gives any property of any kind to said H. W. Bruce and all gifts or bequests heretofore made by me to said H. W. Bruce are hereby changed and said property of every kind thus given or bequeathed to said H. W. Bruce is hereby given to my grandson Henry C. Bruce, hereby revoking all former wills and testaments so far as may conflict with this.

In testimony hereby I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my seal this 14th day of February A.D. 1862.

Lucy Bragg

Signed, sealed, declared, published and delivered in presence of the undersigned who witnessed this in the presence and at the request of Mrs. Lucy Bragg:  W. C. Harnett, R. F. Waring

Lucy Blakemore, born in Frederick County, Virginia, April 8, 1764, married Thomas Bragg, September 20, 1781, and died in Lewis County, Kentucky, November 1, 1862, aged 98 years, 6 months and 23 days.  Vanceburg Cemetery, Lewis County, Kentucky.

 

Wilson-Lindsey 1863 Marriage Bond

Marion County was formed from Washington County in 1834, so earlier records will be found there.  During the Civil War, John Hunt Morgan and his raiders came through Marion County in 1863, and during the Battle of Lebanon, his brother, Lt. Tom Morgan was killed.  In retribution much of the town of Lebanon was torched, including the courthouse where the historical records went up in flames.  This occurred July 5, 1863.  This marriage bond is one of the first recorded after that date.

Marriage Bond
The Commonwealth of Kentucky

Be it known, that we, Fletcher Wilson as principal, and John R. Thomas as surety, are jointly and severally bound to the Commonwealth of Kentucky, in the sum of one hundred dollars.

The Condition of This Bond is as follows:

That, whereas Marriage is intended to be solemnized between the above bound Fletcher Wilson and Catherine H. Lindsey.  Now, if there is no lawful cause to obstruct said marriage, this bond shall be void, otherwise it shall remain in full force and effect.

Dated at Lebanon, Marion County, this 22nd day of September 1863.

Fletcher Wilson, J. R. Thomas

Attest:  John R. Wheat, Deputy Clerk, Marion County Court

  1. Date of marriage – Wednesday, September 23rd
  2. Name of groom – Fletcher Wilson
  3. Residence of groom – Marion County
  4. Age of groom – thirty-seven years
  5. No. of marriage of groom – second time
  6. Occupation – farmer
  7. Birth-place of groom – Washington County, Kentucky
  8. Birth-place of groom’s father – Washington County, Kentucky
  9. Birth-place of groom’s mother – Washington County, Kentucky
  10. Name of bride – Catherine H. Lindsey
  11. Residence of bride – Marion County
  12. Age of bride – thirty-eight years
  13. No. of marriage of bride – first time
  14. Birth-place of bride – Washington County, Kentucky
  15. Birth-place of bride’s father – U.S.
  16. Birth-place of bride’s mother – Washington County, Kentucky
  17. Remarks, bride’s consent proven by oath of J. R. Thomas

To be married at the residence of the bride on 23rd day of September 1863.

I certify that the above is correct to the best of my knowledge and belief.  Witness my hand, this 22nd day of September 1863.

Fletcher Wilson

Attest:  John R. Wheat, Deputy Clerk

 

Death of Dr. Curran Cassius Smith

Curran C. Smith, eldest son of J. Speed and Eliza Smith, born Jun 12, 1822, entered into rest, August 13, 1896.  ‘And his children rise up and call him blessed.’  Richmond Cemetery, Madison County, Kentucky.

The Richmond Climax, Madison County, Kentucky

Wednesday, August 19, 1896

The fearfully sudden death on last Thursday, August 13th, of Dr. Smith again demonstrates that in the midst of life we are in death.  Just before noon he was on the streets in apparently good health, but remarked that he felt a pain in his chest.  At dinner, he passed away without the slightest . . . the Second Presbyterian Church, the remains being deposited in the family lot in the cemetery.  Rev. Owsley Goodloe, brother-in-law of the deceased, and Rev. Dr. McCown, pastor of the Baptist Church, were the ministers.  A long procession followed the remains to the grave.

Sallie W. Goodloe, wife of Dr. Curran C. Smith, November 8, 1834 – December 18, 1909.

Curran Cassius Smith was born in Richmond, Kentucky, on June 12th, 1822.  His father was a distinguished member of Congress and Grand Master of the Masonic Lodge of Kentucky.  His mother was a daughter of Brig. Gen. Green Clay, of the War of 1812, and a sister of Gen. Cassius M. Clay, Mr. Lincoln’s Minister to Russia.  Rev. Green Clay Smith, recently deceased, Ex-Governor of Montana and Brigadier General of the U.S. Volunteers, and Ex-Representative J. Speed Smith, this place, were brothers, Mrs. Goodloe, mother of the late William Cassius Goodloe, Minister to Belgium, and Major Green Clay Goodloe, U.S. Marines, was a sister.  Dr. Smith married in 1854 a daughter of Judge William Goodloe of the Madison Circuit Court, she survives.  Their six children survive him, never having lost one.  They are Mrs. Alma Rogers, of Ohio, Mrs. Bessie Benton, of Winchester, Misses Mary Spencer, Willie C. and Curraleen, of Richmond, and J. Speed Smith, of the U.S. Pension Service, now stationed at Williamsport, Pennsylvania.

Dr. Smith graduated at St. Mary’s, then a noted school; thereafter from the Louisville Medical College of which faculty the subsequently celebrated Dr. Gross was a member.  He practiced 53 years, mostly in Madison County.  For a brief period he lived at Lebanon where he was Collector by appointment of Andrew Johnson, which was the only office he ever held, except when Pension Examiner by appointment of Harrison.

During the war, it was the effort of the Confederates to capture Dr. Smith and others to hold as hostages in lieu of several men who had been carried away to northern prisons.  The Federal commandant at Lexington sent an officer with men who rescued the men in hiding.  At the battle of Richmond, Dr. Smith volunteered on the staff of Gen. Manson, as surgeon, and placed in charge of the Mt. Zion Hospital.  Among the wounded, he found the captain who had rescued him.  Him, with two others, he took to his home and treated free of charge until able to go home.

Dr. Smith was utterly devoid of egotism and vanity.  He was a true man, courageous but quiet, and in every respect a good citizen.

To the memory of J. Speed Smith, born July 31, 1792, married July 31, 1815, died June 6, 1854.  Erected by his widow, Eliza L. Clay Smith, born March 29, 1798, died October 14, 1887.

Wesley Lefare Routt – Last Confederate Veteran Dies In Anderson County

Wesley L. Routt, 1843-1942.  Rachel E., his wife, 1836-1923.  Mt. Hebron Methodist Cemetery, Anderson County, Kentucky.

Wesley Lefare Routt was born December 14, 1843, in Anderson County, Kentucky, to Richard Routt and Mary J. Holman.  Wesley was born just in time to be a soldier of the Civil War – and he served in the Confederate Army in Company G, Sixth Regiment.  He fought at Shiloh, Chickamauga, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca and Dallas.  He was wounded at Dallas and disabled for any further service during the war.  He is listed in History of the Orphan Brigade by Ed Porter Thompson, 1898.

After the war, Wesley returned to the county of his birth, where he married Rachel White, October 27, 1867.  The couple had three children, Stanley, Jennie and Ira.  Stanley married Virginia A. Bond.  Jennie never married, and Ira lived about a year.

There is not one census in which all family members appear together.  Since baby Ira died in 1876, he did not appear in any census.  The only proof that he lived at all is the tiny stone in Mt. Hebron Cemetery in Anderson County.  In the 1880 census Wesley is 36, Rachel is 42, Stanley is 10, Jennie is 7, and Jane White is 82 (Jane is Wesley’s mother-in-law).  In 1900 Stanley is not living with the family, but in 1910 he is, with his wife Virginia.  In 1920 Wesley, Rachel and Jennie are living in the same household.  Rachel White Routt died February 17, 1923, of bronchial pneumonia.  On her death certificate, her parents are listed as Thomas White and Jane Doson.  After that date Wesley and Jennie lived together until her death on February 10, 1941.  She was found, presumably by her father, dead in her room, of a hemorrhage of the lungs due to long standing tuberculosis.  Stanley Routt died ten years previous.  Wesley Lefare Routt had outlived all his relations – his parents, his wife, his children, and, to my knowledge, all his brothers and sisters.  Wesley died a year later, May 9, 1942, at the age of 98 – he would have been 99 in December.

The Harrodsburg Herald, Mercer County, Kentucky

 Friday, May 22, 1942

 Lawrenceburg Loses Last Soldier Of South

 Wesley L. Routt, better known as “Uncle Buck Routt,” 98 years of age, died last Saturday afternoon at his home near the Kentucky river on the Harry Wise extension road, in Anderson County. Funeral services were held at the Hebron Church Sunday afternoon, conducted by Rev. M. D. Morton, pastor of the Sand Spring Baptist church.

With the passing of Uncle Buck, Anderson county has lost its last confederate soldier, as he was the last of those Anderson countians who fought under the confederate flag.

 

From The Bourbon News – Dr. Wash and Lucinda Fithian Obituaries

Dr. Wash Fithian, 1825-1904.  Paris Cemetery, Bourbon County, Kentucky.

The Bourbon News, Paris, Kentucky

Friday, June 17, 1904

Dr. Wash Fithian, the oldest and most beloved physician of Paris, died at his home on Pleasant Street, Wednesday afternoon, at 5:25, after three weeks of illness.  His death is mourned by the entire community, for he was loved, honored and respected by all.  It can truly be said that his death ended a useful life and the world has been made better that he lived in it, for he leaves a character for us to emulate.

There are sad hearts in many homes in Paris and Bourbon County, where this faithful and loving physician has. For over a half century, administered in the tenderest way to relieve pain.  Surely the horrors of death should vanish when such a man as Dr. Wash Fithian is called to his eternal home.  It is not death but a peaceful, restful sleep.

Dr. Washington Fithian was born in Salem County, New Jersey, January 8th, 1825, which made him 79 years old last January.  His parents were Dr. Joel and Sarah Dick (Sinickson) Fithian.  His father was a native of New Jersey, and moved to Oxford, Ohio, in 1831, and followed his profession through life.  Dr. Wash Fithian graduated at Miami University, at Oxford, in 1845.  In that year, he began the study of medicine and prepare for his profession under his father.  He attended lectures regularly and graduated in the Ohio College of Medicine, at Cincinnati, in 1848.  In the same year, he located at North Middletown, Bourbon County, Kentucky, and entered upon the practice of his profession, remaining there for fifteen years.  In 1864 he moved to Paris, where he has since resided, after a short stay in preceding year at Shelbyville.  He gave his time and energies to his profession, to which he was greatly attached, and in which he always occupied an enviable position.  He had contributed with his pen to medical literature, and his practice and life was an advocate of the most elevated standard for the noble profession.  He was a veteran of two wars – Mexican and the late Civil War – a surgeon for a time in both.

For many years he and his brother, the late Dr. Joseph Fithian, were partners, and the love of these two brothers for each other was beautiful to behold.  It has often been remarked that Dr. Wash had never been the same man since the death of Dr. Joe several years ago.  It can also be truly said that there never lived in this community two men more beloved and highly respected than these two brothers – Dr. Wash and Dr. Joe Fithian.

His home life was all that characterizes a noble, Christian gentleman – an affectionate and devoted husband and a loving, indulgent father and grandfather.

His long life has been distinguished for his great integrity of character, and his exceptional personal, social and professional habits.

He was married September 18, 1850, to Miss Lucinda Hutchcraft, who survives him with two children – Charles Fithian and Mrs. F. M. Faries.

He was a Mason and Odd Fellow for over fifty years and an officer for many years in the Methodist church.

His funeral will be held at the Methodist church, this (Friday) morning at 10 o’clock, conducted by his pastor, Rev. J. L. Clark, assisted by Rev. Dr. E. H. Rutherford.  The services will be concluded at the grave by the Masons and Odd Fellows.

The pall bearers are:  Dr. F. J. R. Tilton, Dr. B. E. Bean, Dr. Silas Evans, H. A. Power, James McClure, A. Shire, John N. Davis, H. O. James.

Mrs. Wash Fithian, 1829-1909.

The Bourbon News, Paris, Kentucky

Tuesday, August 24, 1909

Mrs. Lou Hutchcraft Fithian, wife of the late Dr. Wash Fithian, entered into eternal sleep Friday morning at 11:30 o’clock, at her home on Pleasant Street, where she has resided for nearly half a century.

She had been confined to her bed for several weeks, when a week ago she was stricken with paralysis.  She was born in Bourbon County on June 7, 1829, being in the eighty-first year of her age.  In September 1850, she married Dr. Wash Fithian, of North Middletown, and several years afterwards located in Paris.

She was the eldest daughter of Reuben Hutchcraft, and is survived by one son, Dr. Charles N. Fithian; one daughter, Mrs. Frank Fairies; one sister, Mrs. Richard Harris, and her brothers, Messrs. R. B. Hutchcraft and William H. Hutchcraft, all of Paris, except the last named, who resides in Missouri.  She is also survived by eight grandchildren and two great-grandchildren.

Mrs. Fithian was a remarkable woman in many respects, noted for her vitality and industry to the very last, although she had been an invalid for a number of years.  She had a bright mind, probably could give more correct dates of notable events that had occurred in Bourbon during her long and useful life than any other person in the county.

She was in fact a mother in Israel, always ready and anxious to do some loving act of kindness for a neighbor, friend or acquaintance.  She idolized her children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren.  A loving, trusting and devoted mother, a kind neighbor, a true friend.  A noble Christian woman has passed from our midst in the death of Mrs. Wash Fithian.  She is not dead, but has only entered into that calm, peaceful and restful sleep that is the reward for all such women as the deceased.

Her funeral Sunday afternoon at the Methodist church, at three o’clock, was one of the largest ever witnessed in our city, and the many beautiful floral designs were but a slight tribute of love and affection that is held by the people of this community for the deceased.

The services were conducted by her pastor, Rev. M. T. Chandler, assisted by Rev. R. S. Litsinger, of the Episcopal church.  Mrs. Fithian had from early life been a consistent member of the Methodist church.  She was laid to rest in the Paris Cemetery by the side of her honored and much loved husband, Dr. Wash Fithian, who had preceded her to the grave.  The pall bearers were:  Mr. W. H. McMillan, Mr. J. W. Davis, Mr. John N. Davis, Mr. James McClure, Mr. H. A. Power, Mr. H. O. James, Mr. F. P. Lowry, Dr. F. L. Lapsley.