Tag Archives: James Harrod

Graham Springs – Famous Waters Bring Many To Mercer County

Who knew Harrodsburg had the reputation of one of the best mineral springs anywhere around?  Graham Springs and its hotel saw many of important and famous people visit both before the Civil War and after the turn of the 20th century.  It is said its guest registers hold the names of everyone who visited; and one was used in a murder trial in the 1850’s to locate the whereabouts of certain witnesses at the time of the murder.  You guessed it – they were at the Graham Springs Hotel.

Begun in 1820, a large hotel was built in 1843.  In 1853 the property was sold to the US government, and burned in 1865.  In 1911 the idea of the Graham Springs Hotel was reborn with another building, and continued through 1932 when the property was purchased by Glave Goddard.  In 1946 it was decided to build the James B. Haggin Hospital on the site of the Grahm Springs Hotel.

The Courier-Journal, Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Sunday, November 17, 1929

Autumn At Graham Springs

To the Editor of The Courier-Journal

Graham Springs Hotel stands upon a beautiful wooded hilltop overlooking the historic town of Harrodsburg, itself one of the oldest and most famous resort hotels in the South.

Twenty-five acres of almost virgin forestry surround it, in unusual beauty of location, its site superb, and its outlook majestic.  As the changing seasons come and go in Kentucky, they write a progressive record of the sylvan beauty upon these woods that thrill an observer with the sheer loveliness of it.  The bluegrass has a marvelous power of resurrection which no amount of scorching in summer drouths can destroy, and late rains of the fall season have laid an aftermath of tender green upon the sunlit slopes in Graham Springs woods.  Upon walnut trees of unusual size and symmetry dark clumps of mistletoe hang in profusion, their waxen berries turning to pearl in a setting of shimmering dark green leaves.  It is no wonder that the Druids worshipped the mistletoe, with its suggestion of everlasting life!  From oak and elm and walnut trees, brilliant autumn colors are flaunted in the face of on-coming winter, with a brave abandon.  As one by one, scarlet, gold and russet-brown leaves float softly to earth, in the still sunlight, a sense of peace and restfulness falls like soothing balm upon the spirit of anyone who may walk there.

In 1820, Dr. C. C. Graham erected a classic building resembling an old world castle upon these grounds, close to the famous Graham0 Springs, whose marvelous curative waters still attract people in search of health and pleasure.  It does not need a page from the United States Dispensary, which states that, ‘Graham Springs and Saratoga are the only saline waters of true worth to be found in America,’ to convince one who has tasted it.  Many have declared it equal to the waters at Baden-Baden.  Kentucky has an asset in this mineral water which she cannot afford to overlook, and progress will surely present it to the world in the fullest measure.  In 1865, that year of the War Between the States anguish, the old hotel was burned.  Its romantic memories, its charm and prestige, however, which are things of spiritual permanence, still cling about the place.

It was in Harrodsburg that George Rogers Clark planned his famous army for the conquest of the Northwest, in commemoration of which event, Old Fort Harrod has been made a State park.  It was within the hotel grounds that a beautiful pageant, representing the early history of Kentucky, was given in celebration of the centennial anniversary of the founding of Harrodsburg, several years ago.  A priceless old record book of Graham Springs Hotel shows names of men famous in the making of America.  Henry Clay was a frequent guest and left his name upon its register.  Pages might be printed of other famous signatures found there.

Old Dr. Graham himself, with his snow-white beard and princely bearing, was a conspicuous figure in the annals of Kentucky, not only leaving a record of his fame at Graham Springs, but at old Transylvania University at Lexington, where he received his education.  Dr. Ephraim McDowell at Danville, and Dr. C. C. Graham at Harrodsburg were men who measured up to the highest standards in the world’s medical records.  The wise old doctor saw to it that his guests had a full measure of exercise and pleasure as well as curative waters to tone up the human system.  A series of dances were inaugurated at Graham Springs before the War Between the States, which became famous for their brilliancy and aristocratic patronage.  The musicians were colored slaves of Dr. Graham, highly trained and gaily liveried.  The singing of ‘spirituals’ before an audience began, in the old South, upon these occasions.

The grave of the unknown girl who died of a heart attack at one of the balls given at Graham Springs.  Her grave is well-tended today.

To this day the weekly dances at Graham Springs are social events of importance in Kentucky, during the season.  Perhaps a mention of the ante-bellum balls may not be complete without reference to the beautiful ‘Unknown’ who danced so gaily and so long at one of them, that she died of a heart attack on the same summer night.  Her grave, marked first by Dr. Graham, and afterward by the City of Harrodsburg, is shown to tourists who never fail to respond to the pathetic appeal of her story.

Mrs. James Harrod, widow of the hardy old pioneer who founded Harrodsburg, lived to a very old age, and was an honored guest at Graham Springs on the first anniversary celebration held there.

Nancy Lewis Greene, Harrodsburg, Kentucky

The Courier-Journal, Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Thursday, January 1, 1942

Where Southern Gentry Met to Freshen, Fatten and Flirt

This article of 1942 talks about the many ‘watering places’ or mineral springs located in Kentucky, and used before the advent of the Civil War.  It is said physicians strongly recommended taking the waters and were advertised as being ‘especially beneficial to persons suffering from diseases of the stomach, live and kidneys, as well as from asthma, gout, dyspepsia, rheumatism, bilious disorders, neuralgia, autumnal fevers and general debility.’  I believe that takes in almost anyone!

In 1803 John Kennedy’s stagecoach lines helped bring patrons from the city to the country where they might take the waters.

At Olympian Springs, in Bath County it was said ‘there was much flirting, sometimes by ‘married charmers, thirsting for universal dominion.’  Disputes between the ladies often involved ‘pillows, bolsters, fingernails and the poignant sarcasm of the tongue,’ and, at time, the dueling pistols of sensitive gentlemen could be heard in a nearby woodland settling ‘affairs of honor.’

‘Dr. Christopher Columbus Graham, veteran of the War of 1812 and “for many years the champion off-hand rifle shot of the world,” purchased the Greenville Springs in 1827, and the following year bought the “Harrodsburg or Sutton Springs” from his father-in-law, Captain David Sutton, for $10,000.  Dr. Graham then combined these two watering places under the name of Harrodsburg or Graham’s Springs.

‘A guest, viewing the Springs in retrospect, said of them: “The walk to the spring before breakfast was very fashionable, a long board-walk covered with tan-bark and shaded with locust trees, their branches meeting and arching overhead the whole distance.  The belles and beaux walked up and down the long portico of the hotel in what seemed to me a fair procession.  The ladies with their beautiful elaborately dressed hair in the New Orleans fashion, as from there we got the styles, and their organdy muslins, which were not then to be bought outside of New Orleans.  The envy of all were the exquisite wide embroidered collars and cuffs worn by the Southern belles.  A score of Creole beauties, prim and particular in their lovely, fleecy, muslin dresses were always present.  The ballroom at night was a scene of enchantment; old Dr. Graham, the proprietor, was the master of ceremonies and the life of the party.”’

It was said that during the summer months of 1833, when the Asiatic cholera was rampant in Kentucky, many came to the springs for healing.  ‘Dr. Graham, at Harrodsburg, announced: “These Springs are perfectly free from the cholera and they never have been otherwise,” and “the many who visited the Springs, from the various cholera districts, with the disease upon them, have all quickly recovered.”’

‘By the middle ‘40’s the watering places of the state were in their heyday.  To keep abreast of the times, Dr. Christopher Graham of Harrodsburg Springs erected an elegant and commodious hotel during the late fall of 1842 and winter of 1843.  This splendid building, costing $30,000, was acclaimed by many to the “the finest edifice in the West.”’

And this July 19, 1851, note in The Courier-Journal gives a rousing description of the dance in the Graham Springs Hotel ball room.  ‘Returning from the ball room, brilliantly illuminated by the sparkling eyes, rivaling the stars in their dazzling brilliancy, methought, if in the cool evening zephyrs that continually fanned my brown, (such were a possibility) to collect, my thoughts scattered in the whirling waltz, to the northern extremity of my brain.  Truly the poet says there’s a “magical influence in the wafted breeze;” but I am afraid (like the charming coquette) she has her favorites, for in spite of all my efforts, my thoughts continue to revert to the ball room!  What a potent charm there is in the dance, and how delightfully sounds the music!’

This popularity of ‘taking the waters’ continued into the early 1850’s.  in 1853 Dr. Graham sold the Springs to the United States Government and it was turned into a military asylum for old and disabled soldiers.

In 1856 the main building burned.  And during the Civil War the buildings that remained were used as a hospital.  After the Battle of Perryville on October 8, 1862, in Boyle County, the ballroom was used as an operating room.

But the Springs did revive in the early days of the 20th century.

The Kentucky Advocate, Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky

Friday, April 21, 1911

It will be pleasant news to the people of Central Kentucky to learn that the far-famed historical old Graham Springs will be opened as a select summer resort the coming season.  The Cassell mansion, one of the most elegant brick buildings in the Blue Grass has been converted into a choice hotel.  Old fashioned cooking will be provided and food in abundance will be supplied.  The water that pours from Old Graham Springs is the finest in the world and it is a wonder that somebody has not long ago erected a hotel there sufficient to accommodate five hundred guests.  The property is now owned by Mr. Ben C. Allin and Editor T. Sanders Orr has charge of the publicity department.  The water from these springs should be bottled and shipped throughout the country.  Reasonable rates will be made.  Many Danville people will doubtless take advantage of the fine accommodations and benefit themselves by drinking the pure water that made Harrodsburg famous sixty years ago.

This 1923 advertisement for the Graham Springs Hotel touts its ‘tennis, croquet and shady grounds, is located on a high eminence with splendid views and amid beautiful scenery.’  Perhaps this was the first of what today is known as farm-to-table – ‘its table is supplied with the best of foods, old-fashioned cooking, chicken dinners, including pure Jersey milk from our own herd, fresh vegetables and fruit from our own gardens.’

It is also a tourist manual, giving ideas for outings in the surrounding country – ‘beautiful and full of historic interest.  The roads are ideal for riding, driving and motoring and short excursions may be made to the site of the old fort, to Daniel Boone’s Cave, High Bridge, Shakertown, Perryville Battlefield and other points of interest.’

This photo was taken during those early days of the 20th century.

This is what the area looks like today.

Kentucky Fudge Company – Harrodsburg’s Historic and Culinary Treasure

The Kentucky Fudge Company in the early years – when it was Dedman’s Drugstore.

If you have never visited the small town of Harrodsburg, I heartily recommend you do.  Located in central Kentucky, we have so much history to offer since we are the oldest town in the state, founded in 1774 by a group of pioneers led by James Harrod, of Pennsylvania, who built Fort Harrod.  It was the only colonial city and the first permanent English settlement west of the Allegheny Mountains.  I am proud to call Harrodsburg ‘home’.

Originally Kentucky was called Fincastle County when it was part of Virginia.  In 1776, after Harrodsburg had been a town for two years, it was renamed Kentucky County, Virginia.  Four years later Kentucky County was divided into three counties – Fayette, Jefferson and Lincoln.  Harrodsburg was the county seat of Lincoln County, and remained so until 1785 when Mercer County was formed, Harrodsburg becoming the county seat for Mercer.  Kentucky became a state in 1792.

With our county clerk’s office that has records back to the very early years, our wonderful public library that has its own genealogy room and the Harrodsburg Historical Society located on Chiles Street, it is a genealogists dream.

But today I want to talk to you about the Kentucky Fudge Company located on Main Street.  It is located in the old Smith and Dedman Drugstore building that opened in 1868 at 225 South Main Street.  C. M. Dedman bought out his partner and it was known as Dedman’s Drugstore, and continued as a pharmacy until 1983.  The James Harrod Trust eventually acquired the property through the generosity of a local citizen, and restored the first floor of the drugstore.  The Kentucky Fudge Company was opened in 2006 and is a wonderful gathering place for adults and children – to enjoy ice cream in huge waffle cones or lunch or dessert – and to spend time talking and visiting with friends.

As you come through the front door it seems as if we’ve walked back in time.  From the original soda fountain, stained glass windows and the original cherry cabinets of the pharmacy to the ceilings and floors, history is in present time.  Drugstore memorabilia, old photos and such are on display.

But let’s talk about the food – you know how much I love to eat!  The menus are written on blackboards and the list is filled with yummy sandwiches, soups, salads, ice cream, bakery items.  The Saturday after five menu can be anything from a Roast Beef Manhattan to Pot Roast and Horseradish to personal pizzas and quesadillas.  On St. Patrick’s Day weekend we enjoyed Bangers and Mash!

My personal favorite lunch is their Triple Scoop – I always choose chicken salad, potato salad and olive nut spread.  Served with crackers, this is heaven on a plate!  The chicken salad is filled with chunks of chicken, grapes and celery; the potato salad is wonderful (tastes like it is made with baked potatoes); and the olive nut is by far the best I’ve ever eaten – pecans, green olives and cream cheese!  My mouth salivates just thinking about it!

And Saturday at 6:30 the Trivia begins – tables are filled with locals enjoying food, drinks and answering those mind-boggling questions!  Such fun!

And what about the fudge?  Oh, my!  One taste and you are hooked!  It is creamy, smooth and delicious!  Last time I tried the peppermint schnapps – now a personal favorite.  They also have buckeye (chocolate and peanut butter), milk chocolate and walnuts, bourbon, and several others.

Any visitor who stops by the Kentucky Fudge Company always returns!  We have friends from Canada who can’t wait to come back to to KFC to have lunch and some pie!  My sister loves the food so much she said the tea room is unnecessary.  And for any genealogy enthusiasts who visit, I always take them to the Kentucky Fudge Company!  Come to Harrodsburg and I will take you!

Fort Harrod and Its Pioneer Graveyard


Reproduction of Fort Harrod

I feel very fortunate to live in a small Kentucky town known as the “Birthplace of the West”.  Harrodsburg was the only colonial city, and first permanent settlement, west of the Allegheny and Appalachian Mountains.  Broadway Street has the distinction of being the oldest street west of those mountains.  It was settled in 1774 by James Harrod of Pennsylvania.  The fort was originally to be built much closer to what is now the small town of Burgin, but the huge number of bison that consistently ran through that area, made it impossible.

Harrodsburg was first the county seat of Fincastle County, Virginia, then Kentucky County, Virginia.  When Kentucky County was divided in three counties, Fayette, Jefferson and Lincoln, Harrodsburg continued to the be county seat of Lincoln.  In 1785 Mercer County was formed and retained Harrodsburg as the county seat.  Stanford became the new county seat for Lincoln.


Osage Orange Tree

Fort Harrod is now a reproduction that draws many visitors each year.  It has been a popular field trip for students from the far reaches of the state – and out of state – and even our own children make their way there at least once during their years of education.  And most take their pictures lined on the huge, sprawling limbs of the Osage Orange Tree.

My mother was a reenactor one year at the fort, sitting in one of the cabins weaving baskets, in her colonial costume, and sometimes making lye soap over an open fire!  She could certainly tell some stories!  In fact, the gift shop sold out of lye soap the days mom was there!


Pioneer Graveyard at Fort Harrod


The McAfee Memorial Stile, honoring The McAfee Pioneers, James McAfee, Jr., 1736-1811; George McAfee, 1740-1803; Robert McAfee, 1745-1795; Samuel McAfee, 1748-1801; William McAfee, 1750-1780, sons of James McAfee, Sr., and Jane McMichael McAfee.  The McAfee brothers came to Kentucky in 1773 and were the original founders of the Salt River settlement.  Several of the brothers were with George Rogers Clark on memorable expeditions.  They were in the vanguard of those civilizing agencies, which were to redeem the wilderness and make it a fruitful field and the home of a Christian people.  They brought with them not only the axe, the hunting knife and the rifle, but the implements of peaceful and beneficent industry and above the bible respect for law and order and reverence for the Sabbath Day.  They established a community in 1779 where the town of McAfee stands.  A posterity rises up and calls them blessed.  June 16, 1929.


Pioneer Graveyard – This graveyard was just south of Fort Harrod.  The original fort was located on the hill where our present day parking lot is.  Over 480 grave stones still remain in this pioneer graveyard.


This historic cemetery was used from 1775 when the fort was built, until about 1833.  Most of the graves up to 1800 are only marked by rough unlettered stones.  The different grave markings clearly define the progress of civilization at the date of burial, and the materials to be had at the time.


Ann McGinty

Noted pioneer woman Ann McGinty lies buried here.  She brought the first spinning wheel to Kentucky.  She died in 1815.  A Revolutionary Patriot symbol was placed on here stone by the Ann Poage Chapter of the D. A. R.


This is said to be the grave of Thomas Jefferson Head, a son of Jesse Head, the pioneer preacher who united the parents of Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks, in 1806.  Thomas Jefferson Head died in 1823.


An Unknown Grave


Jane, born August 14, 1810

James Harrod, who lead the first pioneers to Harrodsburg, is not buried in this cemetery.  He failed to return from one of his frequent hunting expeditions and his fate was never known.


Thank you for visiting Harrodsburg with me today!  Hopefully one day you can see it in person!




First Will In Mercer County Books – 1786!

Mercer County Will Book One – Page One

Will of Thomas Prather

In my 34+ years of living in Harrodsburg I have never been to the county clerk’s office for genealogy research – I have only one ancestor from Mercer County.  Thursday I went to the courthouse to release liens, part of my job, and the lady who helps with that was out of the office for a few minutes.  I decided to look at the old records while waiting – and now ask – Why Did I Wait So Long?  There is a wealth of information there, and within the ten minutes I waited made copies of twelve original marriage records from 1786-1792, and the first three wills of book one.  What a surprise when I actually sat down to read.  In Thomas Prather’s will, which is what I share with you today, the codicil is witnessed by James Harrod – THE James Harrod who started Fort Harrod, was the founder of Harrodsburg!  Notice he speaks of the ‘Parish of Kentucky’ – we were still Virginia at the time! – and County of Lincoln – one of the three original counties!  And our old friend, Thomas Allin, signs at the bottom as county clerk – Thomas died in 1833 during the cholera epidemic and was county clerk for many years before.  Guess where I will be spending much more of my time?  Hard to tell what other treasures I will find!

Scan_Pic1549 1In the name of God, Amen. I, Thomas Prather, of the Parish of Kentucky and County of Lincoln, being weak in body but of sound mind and memory do make this my last Will and Testament. I will and bequeath to Theophilus Philips eight hundred acres of land which I hold by Pattent bearing date the first day of June 1782, on Warrant Number 2590 and on survey made 4th September 1781, which said 800 acres he has right to as my partner in 2000 acres granted to me on the same warrant and of the same date of patents which said eight hundred acres is to be laid off to said Philips on the upper part of my upper tract on Hardin’s Creek, so as to leave my remaining two hundred acres in a convenient form adjoining to my tract of 1000 acres which his, this land I give (but do not warrant) to the said Theophilus Philips, and to heirs and assigns forever.

I lend to my beloved wife, Mary Prather, the use of the tract of land whereon I live and all stock and furniture and movable estate of any kind during her widowhood for the maintenance of herself and the support and education of my children while she remains a widow.

If my said wife should marry, I give her all my household furniture and one best horse and saddle.

I will and devise that my whole estate not heretofore given shall be divided between my children, from that my sons shall have

Scan_Pic1550two shares and my daughters one share, that is one son shall have twice as much as one daughter. The above division shall take place as soon as any one of my children comes of age or marries.

I appoint my wife, Mary Prather, to be Executrix of this my last Will and Testament. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this sixteenth day of May one thousand seven hundred and eighty six, 1786.

Thomas Prather

Acknowledged before us – James Speed, Malcolm Worley, Thomas Speed, John Speed

Codicil to this will made 25th of June 1786.

I do hereby appoint James Coburn and Henry Prather to be Executers of this my last will and Testament with my wife who is appointed Executrix. Witness my hand and seal.

Thomas Prather

Acknowledged in presence of – James Speed, James Harrod, John Chiles, Jr.

At a Court held for Mercer County at the courthouse on 1st day of August 1786.

This last will and testament of Thomas Prather, deceased, was produced in Court and proved by the oaths of James Speed and John Speed, tow of the subscribing witnesses.


Hereto with the Codicil endorsed proved by the oath of James Speed, which together with the said will is ordered to be recorded.

Teste Thomas Allin, County Clerk

Frontiersman Nathaniel F. Randolph

About a month ago I posted obituaries for Thomas Jefferson Randolph and his wife, Nancy Bailey, both of whom are buried in Spring Hill Cemetery in Harrodsburg, Kentucky.  While at our public library I found the following article on the Randolph family.  Thomas Randolph’s parents were George M. and Julian Hatchell Randolph – and his great-grandparents were Malachi and Mary Elizabeth Fallon FitzRandolph (later dropping the “Fitz”).  This is the brother of Nathaniel Randolph of the article.  Every time I go ‘home’ to Marion County I follow U.S. 68 past Bethel Church – close to where the farm of Malachi Randolph used to be.  If you turn right, just before the church, onto Catlett Road, then a left onto Dixville Road, you will drive past Benton Church where some of the Randolph family members are buried.

from The Kentucky Advocate, Boyle County

Sunday, November 15, 2009

Randolph Story Continues

by Brenda S. Edwards

Nathaniel F. Randolph, a pioneer surveyor, arrived in Kentucky in May 1774, two weeks after James Harrod and his party arrived in Harrodsburg.

Nathaniel was given 2,000 acres of land in Lincoln County for surveying 37,000 acres from the Tennessee River to the Ohio River.  He was hired June 7, 1784, by George Rogers Clark to survey the land included on a Treasury Warrant.

Nathaniel was employed by Clark in public and private affairs which led him west after the Revolutionary War.  He served as a captain during the war.

Nathaniel also was one of 30 men recruited in January, 1777, in Harrodsburg by Clark to transport powder from Limestone Creek to the interior of what was then Kentucky County, Virginia, for relief for the western settlers in what was to become Kentucky.

Ten men left behind by another company led by Colonel John Todd attempted to transport the powder, but were attacked by Indians; several were taken prisoner and three killed.

According to the book, “Early Life of George Rogers Clark”, Clark’s brother Joseph was one of the men taken prisoner.

Clark described Nathaniel as “respectable” in his biographical data, according to the Draper Manuscripts.  Clark said Nathaniel lived out his life and died in Mercer County.

Busy Frontiersman

Research also shows that Nathaniel was busy on the frontier:

  • Nathaniel was listed as living from December 16, 1777, to October 16, 1778, at Fort Harrod or in the neighborhood, according to a history of Mercer County.
  • A history of Fayette County shows that Nathaniel and others were on a jury when two men, John Connolly and Alexander McKee, were accused of being British subjects and about to have their land confiscated in Kentucky County Court in Lexington.  The verdict stated that the men were British subjects, but after April 19, 1775, of their own free will departed from the States and joined the Britannic Majesty in July, 1776.  Their land was confiscated and 12,000 acres were granted to Transylvania Seminary.
  • He was mentioned in a history of Jefferson County and was surveying in December, 1775, along Harrod’s Creek with Abraham Hite, Isaac Hite, Joseph Bowman, Peter Casey, Ebenezer Severns and Moses Thompson.
  • Nathaniel lost a rifle during Squire Boone’s defeat on September 14, 1781, and billed Clark $5 for the loss.
  • Nathaniel and others were petitioned by Mercer County in 1800 to select a way for a road from Nathaniel’s Mill (formerly Peter Casey’s mill) on Salt River, through land belonging to Randolph and others in a direction to the salt works through the Kincheloe Settlement.  The project was approved.
  • He once owned the Fountaine Bleau, an early station near the boiling blue spring in Mercer County.  The site is on Ky. 390, 1.6 miles west of  U.S. 127 according to Harrodsburg/Mercer County Tourism Commission.

Name Change

The original Randolph surname was FitzRandolph; the Fitz was later dropped and Nathaniel used the “F” as his middle initial.

Nathaniel came to Kentucky from Middlesex County, New Jersey, after serving in the Revolutionary War.  He lived out his life in the Mercer County area.

He was the brother of Malachi and Enoch Randolph who followed him to the area.  Malachi stayed in Mercer County and Enoch moved to Henderson County.

“He (Nathaniel) was an old bachelor, with no issue, his only heirs were his brothers and their children,” according to Elizabeth Randolph, wife of Malachi.

The family members also commented on what great penmanship Nathaniel had, according to the family genealogy.  He wrote a letter to General Washington asking for a job in 1791.  No record has been found of the answer.

Nathaniel died between 1810-1820 at the home of his brother, Malachi, three miles southwest of Harrodsburg, and a half mile from Bethel Church.  No information has been found about where he is buried.

(Editor’s note:  The final series in the Randolph history will be about a lawsuit Peter Casey and his son-in-law John Waggoner filed against Nathaniel Randolph involving a land deal.  Research for the series of articles was provided by Monty J. Bryant, a local researcher and genealogist.)